Chondroitin sulfate is a glycosaminoglycan that functions as a component of proteoglycans. Proteoglycans are found throughout the human body, forming the intricate extracellular matrix. Glycosaminoglycans have also interactive roles in cell-cell recognition and cell growth.

Chondroitin sulfate is one of the building blocks that is normally found in cartilage surrounding joints in the body.  As a dietary supplement it is widely acknowledged for a number of potential preventive and therapeutic effects notably osteoarthritis.

Used with glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate alleviates pain and inflammation from osteoarthritis and reportedly has a beneficial effect on degenerated joints. Thus dietary supplements containing glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate have a potential market of tens of millions of people who suffer from osteoarthritis, athletes and dancers who may have joint overuse.

How effective is it?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.

The effectiveness ratings for CHONDROITIN SULFATE are as follows:

Possibly effective for…
  • Cataracts.
  • Osteoarthritis.
  • Urinary tract infections (UTIs).
Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for…
  • Joint pain caused by breast cancer drugs.
  • Dry eyes. .
  • Muscle soreness after exercise.
  • Acid reflux.
  • Bladder inflammation (interstitial cystitis).
  • Bone and joint disease (Kashin-Beck disease).
  • Skin redness and irritation (psoriasis).
  • Overactive bladder.
  • Heart disease.
  • Weak bones (osteoporosis).
  • High cholesterol.

Other conditions

Chondroitin Sulphate in Bravo

Professor Marco Ruggiero gave a presentation in Germany on the 29th of November 2015 to explain why Rerum is superior to and replaces GcMAF as the ultimate “Macrophage Activating Factor”.

In this presentation, the molecular structure of GcMAF was presented and it was postulated that the GcMAF protein itself has no effect, instead, it serves to carry three molecules, each with an evidence base in their own right, endowed with the effects all previously attributed to GMAF, which are are:

  • activation of macrophages
  • direct inhibition of cancer cell proliferation.
  • Killing of cancer cells (apoptosis).
  • Inhibition of angiogenesis.
  • Neuroprotection and neurodevelopment.

The effects attributed to GcMAF protein in the 3 molecules it carries

  • Vitamins D2 and D3
  • Oleic acid, and
  • Chondroitin sulfate (mediates the attachment of GcMAF to the plasma membrane, not GcMAF).

The natural form of GcMAF is Bravo Probiotic, Chondroitin Sulphate is naturally occurring in the Bravo yogurt.  In the Bravo Non Dairy (juice), Chondroitin sulphate is added to the juice as a supplement and when the juice is fermented by the microbes and their enzymes you have the active parts of the chondroitin sulphate in a much more bioavailable form.

How NDB Helps to Make GcMAF Available

Chondroitin sulfate is composed of a chain of alternating sugars, which are N-acetylgalactosamine and glucuronic acid.   N-acetylgalactosamine is the active site of GcMAF.  In the GcMAF molecule, N-acetylgalactosamine is removed by Nagalase; however, Nagalase is ineffective against chondroitin sulfate because the latter is not a protein.

The new theory is chondroitin sulfate contains the active site of GcMAF and, interestingly, whereas in GcMAF there is one N-acetylgalactosamine moiety per molecule, in chondroitin sulfate there are between 50 and 100 N-acetylgalactosamine moieties per molecule.

Are there safety concerns?

Chondroitin sulfate is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth or used as an eye solution during cataract surgery.

Chondroitin sulfate is POSSIBLY SAFE for other methods of application by a  by a physician.Special precautions & warnings are issued for Pregnancy and breast-feeding, Asthma, Blood clotting disorders, Prostate cancer and interactions with medications



  1. Chondroitin Sulphate, Summary of DATA for chemical selection
  2. National Medicines Comprehensive Database
  3. The Non-protein, non-blood-derived macrophage activating factor (MAF).
Bravo Probiotic Instructions eBook

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